Risk factors for development of surgical site infections among liver transplantation recipients: An integrative literature review
Surgical site infection (SSI) is an important complication in the postoperative period of recipients of liver transplantation. The purpose of this integrative literature review is to summarize the knowledge available about the risk factors contributing to the development SSI among adults undergoing liver transplantation.Methods:
We reviewed the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online/PubMed, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, the Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature, Scopus, and Web of Science databases.Results:
Two hundred sixteen articles were identified and the final sample of 9 articles was analyzed in full length. The SSI rate found in the investigations ranged between 9.6% and 35.5%. Risk factors for SSI were grouped into categories related to the preoperative period, such as Model for End-Stage Renal Disease score > 35 and ventilated support on day of transplant; to the intraoperative period activity, such as transfusion of packed red blood cells, extended surgical time, hyperglycemia >200 mg/dL, use of vasopressor drugs, and ascites flow >1 L; and to the donor/recipient relationship, such as age differences >10 years, ratio of donor liver mass to recipient body mass < 0.01. Additionally, centers that annually perform <50 transplants appear to have higher rates of SSI.Conclusions:
Few studies have addressed the subject of SSI in relation to liver transplantation in the scientific literature. Risk factors for SSI in patients who underwent liver transplantation vary between institutions.