Probiotics intake from proximal or distal gastrointestinal tract: The investigation on intestinal morphology and performance of Japanese quail
After the ban on using antibiotics as growth promoters in some countries, much attention has been devoted to probiotics as an alternative to growth promoter antibiotics. Probiotics are beneficial bacteria with positive effects on health and growth efficiency of host animals by improving intestinal health (Fuller, 1989). The idea of probiotic supplementation was introduced as Nurmi and Rantala (1973) inoculated young chicks orally with intestinal content from adult birds. Common routes of probiotics administration are in feed and drinking water, but based on the probiotics supplementation hypothesis that is transfer of beneficial MOs immediately after or even before the hatch, it is likely more efficient to use the probiotics as soon as possible around hatch time.
Probiotics are live organisms; therefore, their proliferation in digestive tract may guarantee their presence in adequate numbers over the lifetime. Thus, we hypothesised that the continuous supplementation of probiotics seems to have no further advantages over single‐dose administration granted that probiotics are established successfully. In the present study, the efficacy of early (in hatchery) single‐dose administration of probiotics through cloaca or mouth, two coarsely separated arrival gates, on Japanese quail's performance and intestinal morphology was compared.