This study describes key technical solutions for detecting environmental toxicants and diagnosing adverse health effects in military operational settings as outlined at a symposium cosponsored by the Department of Defense and the Johns Hopkins University-Applied Physics Laboratory (October 27 to 28, 2015). Such technologies are urgently needed in order to provide critical decision-aid tools and prognostic assessment of potential clinical sequelae. This review summarizes the state-of-the-science on (1) prioritization of adverse health effects, (2) existing technologies and diagnostic tools available for use in theater, (3) challenges to advancing diagnostic tools far-forward, and (4) the potential utility of anchoring diagnostic tools to adverse outcome pathways. Emerging technologies are increasingly available for physiological, environmental, and individual exposure monitoring. Challenges to overcome in austere environments include cold chain requirements and determination of adequate sampling intervals.