Ventricular Perforation During Open Surgical Balloon Expandable Mitral Valve Replacement: A Case Report
A 79-year-old woman with severe mitral annular calcification was scheduled for mitral valve replacement. A SAPIEN 3 valve was implanted in mitral position using an open surgical approach. Immediately after cardiopulmonary bypass, bleeding from an unidentified source was encountered. Cardiopulmonary bypass was emergently resumed and a laceration of the left ventricular apex due to the valve delivery system was detected. Risk factors specific to the open surgical approach include a decompressed ventricle, decreased annulus to apical distance, and the absence of continuous fluoroscopic and echocardiographic imaging. These create a clinical scenario where risk of ventricular perforation is increased compared with traditional intravascular transcatheter valve delivery.