Acute Compartment Syndrome of the Leg

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Abstract

Introduction:

Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) is well known among orthopaedic surgeons. The timely diagnosis and management of ACS is crucial to avoiding its sequelae, including renal failure, ischemic contractures, and limb loss. Despite its relative importance, ACS poses a challenge to many residents and clinicians as diagnosis relies largely on clinical judgment.

Methods:

Timely diagnosis and thorough compartment release are essential to optimizing outcomes in ACS. This video highlights a clinical case in which compartment syndrome of the leg was considered, diagnosed, and surgically managed.

Results:

This video will present the indications for compartment release and a video-guided demonstration of compartment checks using an arterial line transducer, a 4-compartment fasciotomy with 2 incisions, and temporizing vessel loop closure.

Conclusions:

Compartment syndrome can be a devastating complication of common fractures. It is essential that orthopaedic practitioners understand the immediacy of intervention. We have a responsibility to provide timely, accurate diagnosis along with expedient surgical management.

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