Association Between Caffeine Intake and All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality: A Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study
To assess whether caffeine intake is associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality.Patients and Methods:
We conducted a prospective cohort study using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of participants with a caffeine intake of 10 to 99, 100 to 199, and 200 mg/d or more with those of participants with a caffeine intake of less than 10 mg/d.Results:
In total, 17,594 participants were included, and the mean ± SD and median (interquartile range) follow-up was 6.5±2.8 years and 6.4 (3.6-9.5) years, respectively; 17,568 participants (99.8%) completed the follow-up, and 1310 died. Compared with those who had a caffeine intake of less than 10 mg/d, HRs and 95% CIs for all-cause mortality were significantly lower in participants with a caffeine intake of 10 to 99 mg/d (HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.66-1.00; P=.05), 100 to 199 mg/d (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.51-0.78; P<.001), and 200 or more mg/d (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.58-0.83; P<.001). A similar association was observed in participants who consumed less than 1 cup of coffee per week, and the HR was lowest in those with a caffeine intake of 100 to 199 mg/d (HR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.22-0.93). There was no association between caffeine intake and cardiovascular mortality, whereas the HRs for noncardiovascular mortality were significantly lower in those with a caffeine intake of 10 to 99 mg/d (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.57-0.95; P=.01), 100 to 199 mg/d (HR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.46-0.77; P<.001), and 200 or more mg/d (HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.53-0.80; P<.001).Conclusion:
Moderate caffeine intake was associated with a decreased risk of all-cause mortality, regardless of the presence or absence of coffee consumption.