Three- versus four-factor prothrombin complex concentrates for “factor-based” resuscitation in a porcine hemorrhagic shock model
Bleeding is a leading cause of preventable death after severe injury. Prothrombin complex concentrates (PCC) treat inborn coagulation disorders and reverse oral anticoagulants, but are proposed for use in “factor-based” resuscitation strategies. Few studies exist for this indication in acidosis, or that compare 3-factor PCC (3PCC) versus 4-factor PCC (4PCC) products. We aimed to assess and compare their safety and efficacy in a porcine model of severe hemorrhagic shock and coagulopathy.METHODS
Twenty-five adult Yorkshire swine underwent 35% volume hemorrhage, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and protocolized crystalloid resuscitation. Seventeen animals were randomized at 4 hours after model creation to receive a 45-IU/kg dose of either 3PCC or 4PCC. An additional eight animals received autologous plasma transfusion before 4PCC to better characterize response to PCC. Individual factor levels were drawn at 4 hours and 6 hours.RESULTS
The model created significant acidosis with mean pH of 7.21 and lactate of 9.6 mmol/L. After PCC, 66.7% of 3PCC animals and 25% of 4PCC animals (regardless of plasma administration) developed consumptive coagulopathy. The animals that developed consumptive coagulopathy had manifested the “lethal triad” with lower temperatures (36.3°C vs. 37.8°C), increased acidosis (pH, 7.14 vs. 7.27; base excess, −12.1 vs. –6.5 mEq/L), and worse coagulopathy (prothrombin time, 17.1 vs. 14.6 seconds; fibrinogen, 87.9 vs. 124.1 mg/dL) (all p < 0.05). In the absence of a consumptive coagulopathy, 3PCC and 4PCC improved individual clotting factors with transient improvement of prothrombin time, but there was significant depletion of fibrinogen and platelets with no lasting improvement of coagulopathy.CONCLUSION
PCC failed to correct coagulopathy and was associated with fibrinogen and platelet depletion. Of greater concern, PCC administration resulted in consumptive coagulopathy in the more severely ill animals. The incidence of consumptive coagulopathy was markedly increased with 3PCC versus 4PCC, and these products should be used with caution in this setting.