Correlation of iodine uptake and perfusion parameters between dual-energy CT imaging and first-pass dual-input perfusion CT in lung cancer

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To investigate the potential relationship between perfusion parameters from first-pass dual-input perfusion computed tomography (DI-PCT) and iodine uptake levels estimated from dual-energy CT (DE-CT).

The pre-experimental part of this study included a dynamic DE-CT protocol in 15 patients to evaluate peak arterial enhancement of lung cancer based on time-attenuation curves, and the scan time of DE-CT was determined. In the prospective part of the study, 28 lung cancer patients underwent whole-volume perfusion CT and single-source DE-CT using 320-row CT. Pulmonary flow (PF, mL/min/100 mL), aortic flow (AF, mL/min/100 mL), and a perfusion index (PI = PF/[PF + AF]) were automatically generated by in-house commercial software using the dual-input maximum slope method for DI-PCT. For the dual-energy CT data, iodine uptake was estimated by the difference (λ) and the slope (λHU). λ was defined as the difference of CT values between 40 and 70 KeV monochromatic images in lung lesions. λHU was calculated by the following equation: λHU = |λ/(70 − 40)|. The DI-PCT and DE-CT parameters were analyzed by Pearson/Spearman correlation analysis, respectively.

All subjects were pathologically proved as lung cancer patients (including 16 squamous cell carcinoma, 8 adenocarcinoma, and 4 small cell lung cancer) by surgery or CT-guided biopsy. Interobserver reproducibility in DI-PCT (PF, AF, PI) and DE-CT (λ, λHU) were relatively good to excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]Inter = 0.8726–0.9255, ICCInter = 0.8179–0.8842; ICCInter = 0.8881–0.9177, ICCInter = 0.9820–0.9970, ICCInter = 0.9780–0.9971, respectively). Correlation coefficient between λ and AF, and PF were as follows: 0.589 (P < .01) and 0.383 (P < .05). Correlation coefficient between λHU and AF, and PF were as follows: 0.564 (P < .01) and 0.388 (P < .05).

Both the single-source DE-CT and dual-input CT perfusion analysis method can be applied to assess blood supply of lung cancer patients. Preliminary results demonstrated that the iodine uptake relevant parameters derived from DE-CT significantly correlated with perfusion parameters derived from DI-PCT.

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