Relationship Between Pelvic Organ Prolapse and Non–Human Papillomavirus Pap Smear Abnormalities

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Abstract

Objective

The aim of this study was to determine the association between pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and non–human papillomavirus (HPV) Papanicolaou (Pap) smear abnormalities.

Methods

This was a retrospective cohort study of women aged 40 to 70 years who presented for consultation at our institution between 2010 and 2015 and had results of a Pap smear and HPV test available within 5 years of their visit. We extracted demographic information, medical and social history, Pap smear, and HPV results from the electronic medical record. Associations between the presence of POP and non-HPV Pap smear abnormalities were estimated using univariable and multivariable analyses.

Results

We reviewed 1590 charts and excluded 980 women, leaving 610 women in the study: 183 with POP and 427 without POP. Women with POP were significantly older (58.2 ± 7.2 vs 55.6 ± 6.6, P < 0.01) and more likely to have a remote (>10 year) history of abnormal Pap smear (24.0% vs 14.8%, P < 0.01). The rate of non–HPV-associated abnormal Pap smears was higher in the POP group than in the non-POP group (12/183 [6.6%] vs 12/427 [2.8%], P = 0.029). In the POP group, the rate of non-HPV Pap smear abnormality was significantly associated with increasing prolapse stage (stage 1: 0/16 [0%], stage 2: 5/77 [6.5%], stage 3: 3/73 [4.1%], stage 4: 4/17 [23.5%]; P = 0.02). After controlling for age and remote history of abnormal Pap smear, the odds ratio for non-HPV Pap smear abnormalities in the POP group remained significant (2.49; 95% confidence interval, 1.08–5.79).

Conclusions

Human papillomavirus–negative Pap smear abnormalities may be related to POP. Our findings have important implications for surgeons seeking to leave the cervix in situ in women with POP.

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