The aims of this prospective, observational study were to evaluate the changes of the regional cerebral saturation (rSO2) measured by near-infrared spectroscopy during elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy under total intravenous anesthesia and the association between patient’s characteristics and critical decline of rSO2. Hemodynamics, rSO2, and oxygen saturation were recorded in different time points: before the anesthesia (Tbas), 2 minutes after the induction (supine position) (Tind), 2 minutes after CO2 insufflation (supine) (TCO2), 10 minutes after CO2 insufflation (reverse Trendelenburg) (TrevT), and 2 minutes after deflation (supine) (Tpost). Average age was 53±13 (range: 22 to 79 y). In 12 of a total of 62 patients (19.4%) the rSO2 decreased >20% (20.5% to 28.4%) in TCO2 or TrevT times. Significantly higher decrease of the rSO2 was found in patients older than 65 years and those with body mass index >30 kg/m2 (P<0.05). Noninvasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation could be an important part of perioperative care in obese and older patients.