This review was conducted to assist the busy dentist in keeping abreast of the latest scientific information regarding the clinical practice of dentistry. Each of the authors, who are considered experts in their disciplines, was asked to peruse the scientific literature in their discipline published in 2016 and review the articles for important information that may affect treatment decisions. Comments on experimental methodology, statistical evaluation, and the overall validity of conclusions are included with many of the reviews. The reviews are not meant to stand alone but are intended to inform the interested reader about what has been discovered in the past year. The readers are then invited to go to the source, if they want more detail.