Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has been successfully used in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). To clarify the arsenic species in APL patients, high performance liquid chromatography-hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HPLC-HG-AFS) and HG-AFS methods were developed and validated to quantify the plasma concentrations of inorganic arsenic (As(III) and As(V)) and methylated metabolites (MMA and DMA), and the total amounts of arsenic in blood cells and plasma. Blood cells and plasma were digested with mixtures of HNO3—H2O2 and analyzed by HG-AFS. For arsenic speciation, plasma samples were prepared with perchloric acid to precipitate protein. The supernatant was separated on an anion-exchange column within 6 min with isocratic elution using 13 mM CH3COONa, 3 mM NaH2PO4, 4 mM KNO3 and 0.2 mM EDTA-2Na. The methods provided linearity range of 0.2–20 ng/mL for total arsenic and 2.0–50 ng/mL for four arsenic species. The developed methods for total arsenic and arsenic species determination were precise and accurate. The spiked recoveries ranged from 81.2%-108.6% and the coefficients of variation for intra- and inter-batch precision were less than 9.3% and 12.5%, respectively. The developed methods were applied successfully for the assay of total arsenic and arsenic species in 5 APL patients. The HPLC-HG-AFS may be a good alternative for arsenic species determination in APL patients with its simplicity and low-cost in comparison with HPLC-ICP-MS.