Association of End-stage Renal Disease with Radiographically and Clinically Diagnosed Apical Periodontitis: A Hospital-based Study

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Abstract

Introduction

The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of apical periodontitis (AP) and endodontic treatment in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) as compared with patients with no history of ESRD.

Methods

In this cross-sectional study, 40 patients diagnosed with nondiabetic ESRD were included. The control group consisted of 40 age-matched and sex-matched healthy individuals. Digital panoramic radiographs were exposed on patients in both the experimental and control groups. The number of remaining teeth and the prevalence of nonsurgical and/or surgical root canal treatment were evaluated. Also, the presence of AP in all teeth and endodontically treated teeth (ETT) was recorded using the periapical index. Logistic regression was used to determine the possible association between ESRD and AP.

Results

AP in at least 1 tooth was found in 29 of the patients with ESRD (73%) and in 16 of the control patients (40%) (odds ratio [OR] = 3.9, P < .05). In 21 (52%) patients with ESRD in the experimental group, at least 1 ETT was diagnosed with AP. In the control group, 11 (28%) individuals had AP affecting at least 1 of the ETT (OR = 2.9, P < .05). Adjusted for the number of teeth and endodontic treatment, ESRD was significantly associated with the presence of AP (P < .05; OR = 2.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.43–4.8). Also, the number of teeth with AP was significantly associated with the urea serum level in the experimental group (P < .05, β coefficient = 4.35).

Conclusion

AP was significantly more prevalent in the experimental group. This may suggest that ESRD could possibly alter the pathogenesis of AP. However, these findings do not confirm the presence of any cause-and-effect relationship between these conditions. Also, considering the modifying effect of AP on urea serum level, the treatment of AP could be incorporated in the treatment planning of patients with ESRD.

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