Prevalence of Intracranial Aneurysm in Women With Fibromuscular Dysplasia: A Report From the US Registry for Fibromuscular Dysplasia

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Abstract

Importance

The prevalence of intracranial aneurysm in patients with fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is uncertain.

Objective

To examine the prevalence of intracranial aneurysm in women diagnosed with FMD.

Design, Setting, and Participants

This cross-sectional study included 669 women with intracranial imaging registered in the US Registry for Fibromuscular Dysplasia, an observational disease-based registry of patients with FMD confirmed by vascular imaging and currently enrolling at 14 participating US academic centers. Registry enrollment began in 2008, and data were abstracted in September 2015. Patients younger than 18 years at the time of FMD diagnosis were excluded. Imaging reports of all patients with reported internal carotid, vertebral, or suspected intracranial artery aneurysms were reviewed. Only saccular or broad-based aneurysms 2 mm or larger in greatest dimension were included. Extradural aneurysms in the internal carotid artery were included; fusiform aneurysms, infundibulae, and vascular segments with uncertainty were excluded.

Main Outcomes and Measures

Percentage of women with FMD with intracranial imaging who had an intracranial aneurysm.

Results

Of 1112 female patients in the registry, 669 (60.2%) had undergone intracranial imaging at the time of enrollment (mean [SD] age at enrollment, 55.6 [10.9] years). Of the 669 patients included in the analysis, 86 (12.9%; 95% CI, 10.3%-15.9%) had at least 1 intracranial aneurysm. Of these 86 patients, 25 (53.8%) had more than 1 intracranial aneurysm. Intracranial aneurysms 5 mm or larger occurred in 32 of 74 patients (43.2%), and 24 of 128 intracranial aneurysms (18.8%) were in the posterior communicating or posterior arteries. The presence of intracranial aneurysm did not vary with location of extracranial FMD involvement. A history of smoking was significantly associated with intracranial aneurysm: 42 of 78 patients with intracranial aneurysm (53.8%) had a smoking history vs 163 of 564 patients without intracranial aneurysm (28.9%; P < .001).

Conclusions and Relevance

The prevalence of intracranial aneurysm in women diagnosed with FMD is significantly higher than reported in the general population. Although the clinical benefit of screening for intracranial aneurysm in patients with FMD has yet to be proven, these data lend support to the recommendation that all patients with FMD undergo intracranial imaging if not already performed.

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