Moyamoya Disease in Children: Results From the International Pediatric Stroke Study
This study aimed to describe children with moyamoya disease from an international multicenter stroke database, and explore risk factors for stroke recurrence. We reviewed data of children >28-days old with moyamoya disease enrolled in the International Pediatric Stroke Study from January 2003 to March 2013. A total of 174 children from 32 sites and 14 countries had moyamoya disease; median age 7.4 years, 49% male. Of these, 90% presented with ischemic stroke, 7.5% with transient ischemic attack, and 2.5% with hemorrhagic stroke. One-third of patients had moyamoya syndrome. Stroke recurrence was 20% over median follow-up of 13 months; 9% had multiple recurrences. Children treated with surgical revascularization were less likely to have stroke recurrence (P = .046). Moyamoya disease accounted for 8% of arterial strokes in this international pediatric stroke registry. One-third of pediatric patients with moyamoya disease have an underlying syndromic condition. Surgical revascularization is effective at reducing the incidence of stroke recurrence.