Study of new interactions of glitazone's stereoisomers and the endogenous ligand 15d-PGJ2 on six different PPAR gamma proteins
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia. Glitazones or thiazolidinediones (TZD) are drugs that act as insulin-sensitizing agents whose molecular target is the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). The euglycemic action of TZD has been linked with the induction of type 4 glucose transporter. However, it has been shown that the effect of TZD depends on the specific stereoisomer that interacts with PPARγ. Therefore, this work is focused on exploring the interactions and geometry adopted by glitazone's stereoisomers and one endogenous ligand on different conformations of the six crystals of the PPARγ protein using molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations accompanied by the MMGBSA approach. Specifically, the 2,4-thiazolidinedione ring, pioglitazone (PIO), rosiglitazone (ROSI) and troglitazone (TRO) stereoisomers (exogenous ligands), as well as the endogenous ligand 15d-PGJ2, were evaluated. The six crystallographic structures of PPARγ are available at Protein Data Bank as the PDB entries 2PRG, 4PRG, 3T03, 1I7I, 1FM6, and 4EMA. According to the results, a boomerang shape and a particular location of ligands were found with low variations according to the protein conformations. The 15d-PGJ2, TZD, PIO, ROSI and (S,S)-TRO enantiomers were mostly stabilized by twenty hydrophobic residues: Phe226, Pro227, Leu228, Ile281, Phe282, Cys285, Ala292, Ile296, Ile326, Tyr327, Met329, Leu330, Leu333, Met334, Val339, Ile341, Met348, Leu353, Phe363 and Met364. Most hydrogen bond interactions were found between the polar groups of ligands with Arg288, Ser289, Lys367, Gln286, His323, Glu343 and His449 residues. An energetic analysis revealed binding free energy trends that supported known experimental findings of other authors describing better binding properties for PIO, ROSI and (S,S)-TRO than for 15d-PGJ2 and the TZD ring.