Cancer cells exhibit specific physiological differences compared to normal cells. Most surface membranes of cancer cells are characterized by high expression of given protein receptors, such as albumin, transferrin, and growth factors that are also present in the plasma of patients themselves, but are lacking on the surface of normal cells. These distinct features between cancer and normal cells can serve as a niche for developing specific treatment strategies. Near-infrared (NIR)-light-triggered therapy platforms are an interesting novel avenue for use in clinical nanomedicine. As a photothermal agent, conducting polymer nanoparticles, such as polypyrrole (PPy), of great NIR light photothermal effects and good biocompatibility, show promising applications in cancer treatments through the hyperthermia mechanism. Autologous plasma proteins coated PPy nanoparticles for hyperthermia therapy as a novel core technology platform to treat cancers through secreted protein acid and rich in cysteine targeting are developed here. This approach can provide unique features of specific targeting toward cancer cell surface markers and immune transparency to avoid recognition and attack by defense cells and achieve prolonged circulation half-life. This technology platform unveils new clinical options for treatment of cancer patients, supporting the emergence of innovative clinical products.