Epidemiology of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases in a French nationwide HIV cohort

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Abstract

Background:

HIV infection and inflammatory and autoimmune diseases (IADs) are both related to immune dysfunction. Epidemiological data on IAD in patients living with HIV (PLHIV) are scarce. The aim of this study was thus to estimate the prevalence of 26 IAD among PLHIV followed in a large French multicenter cohort in the combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) era (from January 2000 to July 2013), and to describe their occurrence according to cART onset, the immuno-virological status of patients and hepatitis C virus (HCV) and/or hepatitis B virus coinfection.

Method and results:

During the study period, 33 403 PLHIV were included in the Dat’AIDS cohort; 1381 patients with an IAD were identified. The most prevalent IADs were psoriasis, sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondyloarthritis, Grave's disease, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, immune thrombocytopenia and chronic inflammatory bowel disease. In contrast, the prevalence of systemic lupus erythematosus and multiple sclerosis were low. Most patients (59%) developed IAD after HIV infection with a mean delay of 10.6 ± 6.4 years. Compared with the entire cohort, HCV coinfection was significantly more frequent in patients with psoriasis, Grave's disease and immune thrombocytopenia, and chronic hepatitis B in patients was more frequent in those with immune thrombocytopenia and autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Among patients developing IAD after the diagnosis of HIV infection, 572 (70%) were on antiretroviral therapy and 419 of them (73%) had undetectable HIV viral load.

Conclusion:

Our study showed that some IAD are not rare among PLHIV and occur mostly in patients with immuno-virological control under cART. The higher frequency of HCV or hepatitis B virus coinfection for some IAD is also confirmed.

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