Cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a dangerous disease, whose subtypes exhibit different distribution patterns in particular countries, regions, and races. In this study, the HPV distribution in patients with cervical precancerous lesions in Western China was investigated to assess a probability for prevention of cervical cancer and the clinical application of an HPV vaccine in China. The retrospective study of patients with different HPV subtypes and cervical precancerous lesions, who have undergone loop eelectrosurgical excision procedure, cold knife conization, or a total hysterectomy in our hospital from January 2016 to August 2016, was performed. All patients were tested for 27 HPV subtypes via the liquid suspension chip technology (Luminex 200). A total of 3393 cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) were investigated, including 1098 cases of CIN I, 762 cases of CIN II, and 1533 cases of CIN III. The overall HPV infection rate was 82.58%. The high-risk HPV infection rate was 76.61%, and the low-risk rate was 9.88%. The most common 5 subtypes were HPV16, HPV52, HPV58, HPV33, and HPV18. The patients were grouped into 6 age groups: ≤20, 21 to 30, 31 to 40, 41 to 50, 50 to 64, and ≥65. The HPV subtypes’ distribution varied across different age groups. In patients with cervical precancerous lesions in Western China, the top 5 HPV subtypes with the highest infection rates were HPV16, HPV52, HPV58, HPV33, and HPV18. The rate of cervical precancerous lesions unrelated to HPV was 17.42%. Thus, HPV screening with no cytology may leave unobserved about 20% of cervical precancerous lesions, which is worth of significant clinical attention.