Maternal Hepatitis B Virus Infection and Pregnancy Outcomes: A Hospital-based Case-control Study in Wuhan, China

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To examine the impact of maternal hepatitis B virus infection on pregnancy outcomes.


Studies regarding hepatitis B virus infection and pregnancy outcomes are limited with inconsistent results, and none of them have evaluated the effect of maternal viral load in pregnancy on pregnancy outcomes.


A hospital-based case-control study was conducted. In total, 1728 hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive women who delivered consecutively at Wuhan Women and Children Medical and Healthcare Center, Wuhan, China, from June 2008 to May 2015, were compared with 1497 HBsAg-negative women giving birth in the same hospital during the same period who were randomly identified and selected from the computerized medical record database in parallel. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were constructed.


After adjusting for confounding variables, maternal HBsAg carriage was associated with increased risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension [adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=2.20; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.30-3.73], fetal distress (aOR=1.40; 95% CI, 1.09-1.78), cesarean delivery (aOR=1.70; 95% CI, 1.45-1.99), and macrosomia (aOR=1.68; 95% CI, 1.19-2.37). Moreover, maternal viral load in the second trimester was significantly associated with risk of preterm birth (aOR for each log10 copy/mL increase, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.01-1.39) among HBsAg carriers after adjustment for maternal age, employment, parity, history of abortion, and prenatal body mass index.


Maternal HBsAg carriage was associated with several adverse pregnancy outcomes. Furthermore, hepatitis B viral activity in pregnancy might have certain effects on pregnancy outcomes. Careful surveillance of maternal HBsAg status as well as viral activity in the second trimester among HBsAg carriers is warranted.

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