Marked Underreporting of Pertussis Requiring Hospitalization in Infants as Estimated by Capture–Recapture Methodology, Germany, 2013–2015
In Germany, pertussis became notifiable in eastern federal states in 2002 and nationwide in March 2013. Infants are at greatest risk for severe disease, with a high proportion requiring hospitalization. We implemented enhanced hospital-based surveillance to estimate the incidence of pertussis requiring hospitalization among infants in Germany and to determine the proportion of infants hospitalized with pertussis too young to have been vaccinated.Methods:
Enhanced surveillance was implemented within a nationwide hospital surveillance network (ESPED). We defined cases as children less than 1 year of age hospitalized due to laboratory-confirmed pertussis with disease onset from 01/07/2013-30/06/2015. We matched cases to those ascertained in the national statutory notification system, and estimated incidence using capture-recapture methodology.Results:
The estimated annual incidence of pertussis requiring hospitalization in infants was 52/100,000 infants (95% confidence interval [CI] 48-57/100,000), with 39% under-reporting to the national notification system. During the two epidemiologic years under-reporting decreased from 46% to 32% and was lower in eastern than western federal states (21% vs. 40%). Within ESPED, 154 of 240 infants (64%) were younger than or still at the age recommended for the first vaccine dose; 55 (23%) could have received one or more vaccine doses. Median length of hospitalization was 9 days (IQR 5-13 days) and 18% required intensive care treatment.Conclusions:
Our study revealed a high burden of pertussis in infants with marked under-reporting, especially in western federal states where notification was only recently established. Strategies for the prevention of severe pertussis.