Aged garlic extract suppresses inflammation in apolipoprotein E-knockout mice
Chronic inflammation plays a major role in the formation and progression of atherosclerotic plaques. To clarify the mode of action of aged garlic extract (AGE) to retard atherosclerosis, we investigated whether AGE suppresses the inflammation in apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE-KO) mice.Methods and results
ApoE-KO mice were fed standard diet with or without 3% AGE for 12 wk. AGE feeding inhibited the progression of atherosclerotic lesion by 27% and reduced the level of C-reactive protein (CRP) and thromboxane B2 (TXB2), a marker of platelet activation, in serum by 39 and 33%, respectively, compared to ApoE-KO mice without AGE treatment. AGE treatment also decreased the level of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), a major stimulus inducing CRP production, in the liver by 35%. AGE decreased the level of interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK4) by 60% and almost doubled the level of phospho-AMP-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK) in the liver.Conclusion
The anti-atherosclerotic effect of AGE involves the suppression of inflammation by reducing the serum level of CRP and TXB2, and the protein level of TNF-α and IRAK4, and increasing AMPK activity in liver.