To evaluate whether differences in tap water and other beverage intake explain differences in inadequate hydration among US adults by race/ethnicity and income.Methods
We estimated the prevalence of inadequate hydration (urine osmolality ≥ 800 mOsm/kg) by race/ethnicity and income of 8258 participants aged 20 to 74 years in the 2009 to 2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Using multivariable regression models, we estimated associations between demographic variables, tap water intake, and inadequate hydration.Results
The prevalence of inadequate hydration among US adults was 29.5%. Non-Hispanic Blacks (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.17, 1.76) and Hispanics (AOR = 1.42; 95% CI = 1.21, 1.67) had a higher risk of inadequate hydration than did non-Hispanic Whites. Lower-income adults had a higher risk of inadequate hydration than did higher-income adults (AOR = 1.23; 95% CI = 1.04, 1.45). Differences in tap water intake partially attenuated racial/ethnic differences in hydration status. Differences in total beverage and other fluid intake further attenuated sociodemographic disparities.Conclusions
Racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in inadequate hydration among US adults are related to differences in tap water and other beverage intake. Policy action is needed to ensure equitable access to healthy beverages.