Factors associated with global longitudinal strain decline in hypertensive patients with normal left ventricular ejection fraction

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Abstract

Background

Early detection of risk factors for left ventricular (LV) dysfunction may be useful in patients with high blood pressure (HBP).

Methods

Patient from an outpatient HBP clinic underwent a two-dimensional Doppler-coupled echocardiography with determination of LV global longitudinal strain (GLS) by speckle-tracking.

Results

Among 200 patients (mean age 61.7 ± 9.7 years), 155 were overweight, 93 had diabetes, 83 had dyslipidemia, and 109 had uncontrolled HBP. LV hypertrophy (LVH) was found in 136 patients (68%), including concentric (n = 106) and eccentric (n = 30) LVH. Diastolic dysfunction patterns were observed in 178 patients (89%), and increased filling pressures were observed in 37 patients (18.5%). GLS ranged from –25% to –11.6% (mean –16.9 ± 3.2%). Low GLS values (>–17%) were found in 91 patients (45.5%), 68 with and 23 without LVH. In univariate analysis, a reduced GLS was associated with HBP lasting for >10 years (odds ratio (OR) = 3.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.73–7.09; p = 0.002), uncontrolled HBP (OR = 3.55, 95% CI 1.96–6.43; p < 0.0001), overweight (OR = 2.01, 95% CI 0.93–4.31; p = 0.0028), diabetes (OR = 2.21, 95% CI 1.25–3.90; p = 0.006), dyslipidemia (OR = 2.16, 95% CI 1.22–3.84; p = 0.008), renal failure (OR = 4.27, 95% CI 1.80–10.10; p = 0.001), an increased Cornell index (OR = 3.70, 95% CI 1.98–6.90; p < 0.0001), concentric LVH (OR = 9.26, 95% CI 2.62–32.73; p = 0.001), remodeling (OR = 8.51, 95% CI 2.18–33.23; p = 0.002), and filling pressures (OR = 7.1, 95% CI 2.9–17.3; p < 0.0001). In multivariable analysis, duration of HBP (p = 0.038), uncontrolled BP (p = 0.006), diabetes (p = 0.023), LVH (p = 0.001), and increased filling pressures (p = 0.003) remained associated with GLS decline.

Conclusion

Early impairment of LV function, detected by a reduced GLS, is associated with long-lasting, uncontrolled HBP, overweight, related metabolic changes, and is more pronounced in patients with LVH.

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