Expression of CYP4V2 in human THP1 macrophages and its transcriptional regulation by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma
Because macrophages respond to a variety of pathological and pharmacological reagents, understanding the role of P450s in macrophages is important for therapeutic intervention. There has been a lack of research on CYP4 in macrophages, but fatty acid accumulation and lipid trafficking in macrophages have been suggested to be a main cause of atherosclerosis. All human CYP4 genes (n = 12) were screened in THP1 macrophages by gene-specific reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Only CYP4V2 exhibited strong expression of both mRNA and protein. Expression levels of both CYP4V2 mRNA and protein were significantly reduced after treatment with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) antagonist GW9662. However, the expression levels of CYP4V2 were not changed by PPARα antagonist (GW6471) and liver X receptor alpha antagonist (22-S hydroxycholesterol). A metabolite of the CYP4V2 enzyme, 12-hydroxydodecanoic acid, was detected in THP1 macrophages, and this metabolite was significantly decreased after treatment with the PPARγ inhibitor GW9662 (> 80% decreased, p < 0.05). In summary, fatty acid metabolizing protein CYP4V2 was identified in human THP1 macrophages, and its expression was regulated by PPARγ. Further study is required to understand the role of CYP4V2 with regard to fat accumulation in the activated macrophage and atherosclerotic plaque development.