The Association of Cognitive Reserve in Chronic-Phase Functional and Neuropsychological Outcomes Following Traumatic Brain Injury.
Examine the association of cognitive reserve (CR) factors (estimated premorbid intelligence quotient [IQ], years of education, and occupational attainment) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) severity with functional and neuropsychological outcomes 1 to 5 years following TBI.PARTICIPANTS
Patients with mild (N = 58), moderate (N = 25), or severe (N = 17) TBI.MAIN MEASURES
Cognitive reserve factors (estimated premorbid IQ, years of education, and occupational attainment); neuropsychological test battery; Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended; Short Form-36 Health Survey.ANALYSES
Spearman-Brown correlations, linear regression models, and analyses of covariance were used to analyze the relation between CR factors and outcome measures.RESULTS
Analyses revealed significant relations between estimated premorbid IQ and neuropsychological outcomes (P < .004): California Verbal Learning Test, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition working memory, Booklet Category Test, Trail Making Test B, and Grooved Pegboard Test. There was also a significant correlation between estimated premorbid IQ and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition processing speed. Years of education had significant relations with California Verbal Learning Test and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition working memory and processing speed scores. There were significant differences between TBI severity groups and performance on the Trail Making Test A, Grooved Pegboard Test, and Finger Tapping Test.CONCLUSIONS
Cognitive reserve factors may be associated with outcomes following TBI. Additional alternatives to TBI severity are needed to help guide rehabilitative planning postinjury.