Renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is strongly related to morbidity and mortality. Oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis play key roles in renal dysfunction following renal I/R. Aripiprazole is an atypical antipsychotic which used for the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Recent studies have reported aripiprazole as displaying certain anti-inflammatory effects. Regarding the underlying mechanisms of renal ischemia-reperfusion, therefore, nephroprotective effects might be predicted to be seen with aripiprazole. I/R injury was induced by bilateral clamping of the renal pedicles (45 min) followed by reperfusion (24 h). The mechanism of aripiprazole-mediated nephroprotection was explored by a combined use of aripiprazole and L-NAME (non-selective nitric oxide synthase inhibitor). Animals were given aripiprazole (2.5, 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) intraperitoneally, 30 min before ischemia. L-NAME was administered before the aripiprazole injection. Serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen were assessed after 24 h of reperfusion. Serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), TNF-α and IL-1β were measured for rats treated with aripiprazole. The extent of necrosis was measured by the stereology method. Ischemia/reperfusion caused significant renal dysfunction and marked renal injury. Aripiprazole reduced creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. Serum levels of MDA, IL-1β and TNF-α were significantly lower in the aripiprazole group. Aripiprazole treatment also decreased the volume of kidney necrosis. The administration of L-NAME reversed the renoprotective effect of aripiprazole on BUN and creatinine, but enhanced the anti-necrotic effect of aripiprazole. The results show that a single dose of aripiprazole significantly improved renal function following ischemia/reperfusion injury – probably through the involvement of nitric oxide.