Direct and Indirect Effectiveness of the 10-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Against Carriage in a Cluster Randomized Trial
Finnish invasive pneumococcal disease (FinIP) vaccine trial was designed to evaluate effectiveness of 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV10; GSK; Rixensart, Belgium). We conducted 2 satellite studies to evaluate ten-valent Pneumococcal Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV10) effectiveness against pneumococcal carriage in FinIP-vaccinated children (long-term direct and indirect effectiveness combined) and in their unvaccinated siblings (indirect effectiveness within the family). FinIP was a cluster randomized trial, where >47,000 children <19 months of age were recruited in 2009–2010. Children received PHiD-CV10 in 2/3, and control vaccine in 1/3 of clusters according to age-specific infant and catch-up schedules. We obtained nasopharyngeal samples from subgroups of FinIP-vaccinated children at 3–5 years of age in 2013 and their unvaccinated older siblings in 2011 and 2013, and compared carriage in PHiD-CV10 clusters to control clusters in parallel. National Vaccination Programme with PHiD-CV10 for all 3-month-old children started in 2010 resulting in 92% vaccination coverage. To investigate indirect effects, over 2200 nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained during each round from unvaccinated older siblings. In 2011, we observed a 29% (95% confidence interval: 6–47) reduction in vaccine-type carriage in siblings of PHiD-CV10 participants vaccinated according to infant schedules. Vaccine-type carriage prevalences were low with no differences observed in 2013, 3 years after PHiD-CV10 introduction. For estimation of combined direct and indirect effectiveness, 1550 swabs from FinIP-vaccinated children were obtained in 2013. We observed a reduction of 54% (95% confidence interval: 34–68) in vaccine-type carriage in PHiD-CV10–vaccinated children. This study was the first randomized trial to show the indirect effect of extended valency pneumococcal conjugate vaccination on carriage. Also, long-term effectiveness against vaccine-type carriage was demonstrated in vaccinated children.