Race, Age, and Geography Impact Hepatitis C Genotype Distribution in the United States
To determine the impact of geography and patient characteristics on hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype and subtype distribution in a large sample of patients under routine clinical careBackground:
HCV genotype impacts disease course and response to treatment. Although several studies have reported genotype distribution within specific US populations, there are no comprehensive descriptions in large, geographically diverse cohorts.Study:
Using data from the Chronic Hepatitis Cohort Study, we present the distribution of HCV genotypes (GT) and subtypes (ST) among a racially diverse cohort of over 8000 HCV-infected patients from four large US health systems.Results:
Genotype distribution varied significantly by geographic and demographic factors. In age-adjusted analyses, African American patients had significantly higher prevalence of GT1 (85%) than other racial categories, largely driven by a markedly higher proportion of GT1 subtype b (∼34%) than in Asian/other (24%) and white (21%) patients. GT3 represented an increasing proportion of infections as birth decade progressed, from 4% in patients born before 1946 to 18% of those born after 1976. Within the cohort of “living/uncured” patients, highly elevated alanine aminotransferase (>2 times the upper limit of normal) was significantly more common in GT3 patients, whereas Fibrosis-4 Index scores indicative of cirrhosis were most common in the combined group of GT4&6 patients.Conclusion:
Distribution of HCV genotypes and subtypes in the United States is more variable than suggested by previous national-level estimates and single-center studies. “Real-world” prevalence data may improve targeting of prevention, screening, and treatment efforts for hepatitis C.