M1 homeopathic complex trigger effective responses againstLeishmania (L) amazonensis in vivoandin vitro
Leishmaniasis is a term referring to a range of clinical conditions caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania, Trypanosomatidae family, Kinetoplastida order that is transmitted by the bite of certain species of mosquitoes Phlebotominae subfamily. These parasites infect hosts wild and domestic mammals, considered as natural reservoirs and can also infect humans. Leishmania are obligate intramacrophage protozoa that have exclusively intracellular life style. This suggests that the amastigotes possess mechanisms to avoid killing by host cells. Cutaneous leishmaniasis, the most common form of the disease, causes ulcers on exposed parts of the body, leading to disfigurement, permanent scars, and stigma and in some cases disability. Many studies concluded that the cytokines profile and immune system of host have fundamental role in humans and animals natural self-healing. Conventional treatments are far from ideals and the search for new therapeutic alternatives is considered a strategic priority line of research by the World Health Organization. A promising approach in the field of basic research in homeopathy is the treatment of experimental infections with homeopathic drugs prepared from natural substances associations highly diluted, which comprise a combination of several different compounds considered as useful for a symptom or disease. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of M1, a complex homeopathic product, in macrophage-Leishmania interaction in vitro and in vivo. It was used RAW cells lineage and BALB/c mice as a host for the promastigotes of L. amazonensis (WHOM/BR/75/Josefa). Several biochemical and morphological parameters were determined. Together, the harmonic results obtained in this study indicate that, in general, the highly diluted products trigger rapid and effective responses by living organisms, cells and mice, against Leishmania, by altering cytokines profile, by NO increasing (p < 0.05), by decreasing parasitic load (p < 0.001), and modifying classical maturation and biogenesis of parasitophorous vacuoles (p < 0.001). M1 complex decreased endocytic index (p < 0.001), and the % of infected macrophages (p < 0.05), preventing the development of lesions (p < 0.05) caused by L. amazonensis by increasing Th1 response (p < 0.05). Therefore the M1complex can be a good candidate for a complementary therapy to conventional treatments, since all the parameters observed in vitro and in vivo improved. It could be an interesting clinical tool in association to a classical anti-parasitic treatment, maybe resulting in better quality of life to the patients, with less toxicity.