Serum Vitamins and Minerals at Diagnosis and Follow-up in Children With Celiac Disease

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Abstract

Objectives:

Children with celiac disease (CD) may experience deficiencies of several micronutrients. The objectives of the present study were to determine the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies in children with CD at diagnosis, 6 months, and 18 months after the start of a gluten-free diet (GFD), and examine any correlation between micronutrient deficiencies, serum tissue transglutaminase (TtG) immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibody titers, and the degree of mucosal damage at diagnosis.

Methods:

Children (<17 years) with CD had their serum vitamins, minerals, and anti-TtG IgA antibodies measured at diagnosis, 6 and 18 months after starting a GFD. Histopathological changes of duodenal biopsies at diagnosis were documented using modified MARSH classification.

Results:

The medical records of 140 children (mean age at diagnosis 7.8 ± 4.01 years, 87 girls [621%]) with CD were examined. At diagnosis, serum vitamin D was the most commonly deficient vitamin in 70% of children. Serum ferritin was subnormal in 34.5% with zinc in 18.6% children but only 12 (10.9%) children had iron deficiency anemia. There was no correlation between micronutrient deficiencies at diagnosis and serum TtG IgA antibody titers or the degree of villous atrophy. The majority of serum levels of measured micronutrients had normalized after 6 months of starting GFD except for vitamin D, which improved but remained subnormal.

Conclusions:

At diagnosis, most children with CD have vitamin D deficiency. The degree of micronutrient deficiencies does not correlate with the degree of villous atrophy or serum titers of anti-TtG IgA antibodies.

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