Decreased mortality in patients prescribed vancomycin after implementation of antimicrobial stewardship program

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Abstract

Background

The impact of an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) on 30-day mortality rates was evaluated in patients prescribed vancomycin in a Veterans Affairs hospital.

Methods:

A retrospective chart review of patients receiving a minimum of 48 hours of vancomycin during October 2006-July 2014. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine predictors of mortality. Interventions of the ASP consist of appropriate antibiotic selection, dosing, microbiology, and treatment duration.

Results:

Death occurred in 12.4% of 453 patients. Of the 56 deaths, 64.3% occurred during prestewardship versus 35.7% during stewardship (P = .021). Increased mortality was associated with pre-ASP (odds ratio [OR], 2.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-4.27), age (unit OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.05-1.12), nephrotoxicity (OR, 3.24; 95% CI, 1.27-8.01), and hypotension (OR, 3.28; 95% CI, 1.42-7.44). Patients treated in the intensive care unit were associated with increased mortality. Patients in the stewardship group experienced lower rates of mortality, which may be caused by interventions initiated by the stewardship team, including minimizing nephrotoxicity and individualized chart review.

Conclusions:

Mortality in patients treated with vancomycin was decreased after antimicrobial stewardship was implemented. As anticipated, older age, hypotension, nephrotoxicity, and intensive care unit admission were associated with an increased incidence of mortality.

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