Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy after Head and Neck Reconstructive Surgery
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM) is a form of transient heart failure that clinically mimics acute coronary syndrome and is characterized by left ventricular wall motion abnormalities. The pathophysiology of TCM is not well established. TCM is often preceded by emotional or physical stress and may occur after surgery. We present 3 cases of TCM occurring after head and neck reconstructive surgery. Echocardiography plays a central role in the diagnosis of TCM. Left ventricular wall motion abnormalities extend beyond the territory of a single coronary artery. Coronary angiography and cardiac computed tomography can demonstrate the absence of coronary atherosclerosis and are useful for confirming the diagnosis of TCM. Particularly after reconstructive surgery, it is necessary to carefully monitor fluid replacement to avoid dehydration, which may compromise flap blood flow, although congestive heart failure is the most common complication of TCM. It is important to encourage ambulation as soon as possible, while considering the degree of cardiac impairment.