Coronary Artery Disease in Patients with Critical Limb Ischemia Undergoing Major Amputation or Not

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Abstract

Background:

Due to the increase of elderly and diabetes patients, surgeons encounter patients requiring treatment of critical limb ischemia (CLI) in the presence of systemic arteriosclerotic diseases. In this study, we retrospectively investigated the prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with CLI who underwent major (above-the-ankle) amputation or nonmajor amputation (below-the-ankle amputation or debridement of wound).

Methods:

We retrospectively investigated 129 consecutive patients surgically managed for CLI in our institution between January 2013 and December 2015. The prevalence of CAD was defined as a cardiac treatment history or significant vascular stenosis (stenosis of > 75%). The outcomes were compared between patients who underwent major amputation (n = 36) and nonmajor amputation (n = 93). Additionally, archived record of 566 patients treated nonsurgically by percutaneous transluminal angioplasty in our institution was investigated to evaluate patients with milder peripheral artery disease.

Results:

CAD was present in 83 patients (69%), including 82% of patients who underwent major amputation and 63% of nonmajor amputation group. The prevalence of CAD was significantly higher in the major amputation group (P = 0.042). Ejection fraction was not significantly different (P > 0.05). Among the 566 CLI patients treated by only percutaneous transluminal angioplasty, 227 (40%) had CAD, which was a significantly lower prevalence than those surgically treated (P < 0.001).

Conclusions:

The presence of CAD is more frequent in CLI patients who require extended surgical management of the limb than in those who do not. Evaluation of CAD and careful perioperative management are important for patients with CLI patients.

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