Contemporary Modalities to Image the Fetal Brain
Fetal brain ultrasound remains as the mainstay for screening fetal intracranial anatomy. One of its main advantages is the availability of 3 dimensional and other ultrasound modalities for a better understanding of fetal neurodevelopment. Neurosonography is performed when findings, suggestive of an abnormality, are present on a screening ultrasound or if a high-risk situation of brain injury is present. This technique offers the use of complementary imaging planes, axial, coronal and sagittal, and the ability to image intracranial anatomy from the transabdominal and transvaginal approaches. Fetal brain magnetic resonance imaging is more sensitive than ultrasound. As an adjunctive imaging modality, magnetic resonance imaging offers additional sequences to complete the information on neurodevelopment from different perspectives, such as brain metabolism, microstructure, and connectivity.