Dual-specificity MAP kinase (MAPK) phosphatases (DUSPs) are well-established negative modulators in regulating MAPK signaling in mammalian cells and tissues. Our previous studies have shown the involvement of DUSP6 in regulating innate immunity in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. In order to gain a better understanding of the role of DUSPs in fish innate immunity, in the present study we identified and characterized three additional DUSP genes including DUSP1, 2 and 5 in P. olivaceus. The three Japanese flounder DUSP proteins share common domain structures composed of a conserved N-terminal Rhodanase/CDC25 domain and a C-terminal catalytic phosphatase domain, while they show only less than 26% sequence identities, indicating that they may have different substrate selectivity. In addition, mRNA transcripts of all the three DUSP genes are detected in all examined Japanese flounder tissues; however, DUSP1 is dominantly expressed in spleen while DUSP2 and 5 are primarily expressed in skin. Furthermore, all the three DUSP genes are constitutively expressed in the Japanese flounder head kidney macrophages (HKMs) and peripheral blood leucocytes (PBLs) with unequal distribution patterns. Moreover, all the three DUSPs gene expression was induced differently in response to the LPS and double-stranded RNA mimic poly(I:C) stimulations both in the Japanese flounder HKMs and PBLs, suggesting an association of DUSPs with TLR signaling in fish. Taken together, the co-expression of various DUSPs members together with their different responses to the immune challenges indicate that the DUSP members may operate coordinately in regulating the MAPK-dependent immune responses in the Japanese flounder.