Efficacy and safety of midostaurin in patients with advanced systemic mastocytosis: 10-year median follow-up of a phase II trial
Patients with advanced systemic mastocytosis (SM) (e.g. aggressive SM (ASM), SM with an associated hematologic neoplasm (SM-AHN) and mast cell leukemia (MCL)) have limited treatment options and exhibit reduced survival. Midostaurin is an oral multikinase inhibitor that inhibits D816V-mutated KIT, a primary driver of SM pathogenesis. We conducted a phase II trial of midostaurin 100 mg twice daily, administered as 28-day cycles, in 26 patients (ASM, n = 3; SM-AHN, n = 17; MCL, n = 6) with at least one sign of organ damage. During the first 12 cycles, the overall response rate was 69% (major/partial response: 50/19%) with clinical benefit in all advanced SM variants. With ongoing therapy, 2 patients achieved a complete remission of their SM. Midostaurin produced a ≥ 50% reduction in bone marrow mast cell burden and serum tryptase level in 68% and 46% of patients, respectively. Median overall survival for the entire cohort was 40 months, and 18.5 months for MCL patients. Low-grade gastrointestinal side effects were common and manageable with antiemetics. The most frequent grade 3/4 nonhematologic and hematologic toxicities were asymptomatic hyperlipasemia (15%) and anemia (12%). With median follow-up of 10 years, no unexpected toxicities emerged. These data establish the durable activity and tolerability of midostaurin in advanced SM.