Multi-class chemical exposure in rural Peru using silicone wristbands
Exposure monitoring with personal silicone wristband samplers was demonstrated in Peru in four agriculture and urban communities where logistic and practical constraints hinder use of more traditional approaches. Wristbands and associated methods enabled quantitation of 63 pesticides and screening for 1397 chemicals including environmental contaminants and personal care products. Sixty-eight wristbands were worn for approximately one month by volunteers from four communities of Alto Mayo, Peru. We identified 106 chemicals from eight chemical classes among all wristbands. Agricultural communities were characterized by pesticides and PAHs, while the urban communities had more personal care products present. Multiple linear regressions explained up to 40% of variance in wristbands from chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, and DDT and its metabolites (DDx) (r2 = 0.39, 0.30, 0.40, respectively). All three pesticides were significantly different between communities, and cypermethrin and DDx were associated with participant age. The calculated relative age of DDT suggested some communities had more recent exposure than others. This work aids health research in the Alto Mayo and beyond by identifying typical mixtures and potential sources of exposure to organic chemicals in the personal environment. Silicone wristband sampling with chemical screening is a candidate for widespread use in exposure monitoring in remote areas.