This study aimed to determine whether functional gastrointestinal disorders are more common among nurses with self-reported poor sleep. In total, 468 nurses working the day shift or rotating shifts completed two questionnaires: the questionnaire for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) using Rome III criteria and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The prevalence of poor sleep was 41.04% (95% confidence interval, CI: [36.23, 45.85]), and poor sleep was significantly more common among rotating-shift nurses than among day-shift nurses (50.70% vs. 29.95%; p < .05). Among nurses with poor sleep, the prevalence of IBS and functional constipation was 35.15% (95% CI: [27.86, 42.44]) and 11.52% (95% CI: [6.65, 16.39]), respectively. After adjusting for age, work schedule, night pain, and psychological factors, IBS (odds ratio, OR: 1.88; 95% CI: [1.03, 2.49]) and functional constipation (OR: 1.77; 95% CI: [0.64, 2.57]) were significantly more common in nurses with poor sleep. We conclude that IBS and functional constipation are prevalent in nurses with poor sleep. Poor sleep was independently associated with IBS and functional constipation among nurses in Shanghai, China.