Factors Associated With Prevalent HIV Infection Among Kenyan MSM: The Anza Mapema Study

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To inform future HIV treatment and care programs for men who have sex with men (MSM), we assessed the prevalence of and factors associated with previously diagnosed HIV-positive and out-of-care (PDOC) or newly diagnosed HIV-positive and out-of-care (NDOC) HIV infection among MSM enrolled in the prospective Anza Mapema cohort study.


Participants were aged 18 years and older, reported oral or anal sex with a man in the past 6 months and were not already in HIV care or taking antiretroviral therapy in the past 3 months. At enrollment, men were tested for HIV infection and completed questionnaires through audio computer–assisted self-interview. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify associations with PDOC or NDOC HIV infection, relative to HIV-negative status.


Among 711 enrolled men, 75 (10.5%) were seropositive including 21 PDOC and 54 NDOC men. In multivariable modeling, PDOC status was more likely than HIV-negative status among men who had experienced upsetting sexual experiences during childhood, had recently experienced MSM trauma, and did not report harmful alcohol use. NDOC infection status was more common among men aged 30 years and older and who had completed ≤8 years of education, relative to HIV-negative status.


Most HIV-positive men were unaware of their infection, indicating that HIV testing and counseling services tailored to this population are needed. To improve linkage to and retention in care, HIV testing and care services for MSM should screen and provide support for those with hazardous alcohol use and those who have experienced childhood sexual abuse or MSM trauma.

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