Is combined topical and intravenous tranexamic acid superior to single use of tranexamic acid in total joint arthroplasty?: A meta-analysis from randomized controlled trials

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To compare the efficacy and safety of the combined application of both intravenous and topical tranexamic acid (TXA) versus the single use of either application in patients with total knee and hip arthroplasty (TKA and THA).


Potentially relevant studies were identified from electronic databases including Medline, PubMed, Embase, ScienceDirect, and the Cochrane Library. Randomized control trials (RCTs) of patients prepared for total joint arthroplasty that compared combined TXA with placebo were retrieved. The primary endpoint was hemoglobin decline or postoperative hemoglobin level, blood loss, drainage volume, transfusion requirements. The secondary outcomes were length of stay (LOS), and operation time as well as surgery-related adverse effects, such as wound infection, deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and pulmonary embolism (PE). After testing for publication bias and heterogeneity between studies, data were aggregated for random-effects models when necessary.


Five RCTs that included 604 patients met the inclusion criteria. The present meta-analysis indicated significant differences existed in the total blood loss (mean difference [MD] = −134.65, 95% CI: −191.66 to −77.64, P < .0001), postoperative hemoglobin level (MD = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.39–1.10, P < .0001), drainage volume (MD = −47.44, 95% CI: −64.55 to −30.33, P < .00001), and transfusion rate (risk difference [RD] = −0.06, 95% CI: −0.10 to −0.02, P = .006) between groups.


Combined administration of TXA in TKA and THA was associated with significantly reduced total blood loss, postoperative hemoglobin decline, drainage volume, and transfusion requirements. Well-designed, high-quality RCTs with long-term follow-up are still required.

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