Genotoxic evaluation of poly(anhydride) nanoparticles in the gastrointestinal tract of mice
Gantrez® AN 119-based NPs have been developed as oral drug carriers due to their strong bioadhesive interaction with components of the gastrointestinal mucosa and to their adaptable surface. The use of mannosamine to coat Gantrez® AN 119-based NPs results in a high mucus-permeable carrier, able to reach the gastrointestinal epithelium. Although their efficacy to transport a therapeutic agent has been demonstrated, their safety has not yet been thoroughly studied. They have proved to be non-cytotoxic, non-genotoxic and non-mutagenic in vitro; however, the in vivo toxicity profile has not yet been determined. In this study, the in vivo genotoxic potential of Gantrez® AN 119 NPs coated with mannosamine (GN-MA-NP) has been assessed using the in vivo comet assay in combination with the enzyme formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase in mice, following the OECD test guideline 489. To determine the relevant organs to analyse and the sampling times, an in vivo biodistribution study was also carried out. Results showed a statistically significant induction of DNA strand breaks and oxidized bases in the duodenum of animals exposed to 2000 mg/kg bw. However, this effect was not observed at lower doses (i.e. 500 and 1000 mg/kg which are closer to the potential therapeutic doses) or in other organs. In conclusion, GN-MA-NP are promising nanocarriers as oral drug delivery systems.