Although coronary perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) may play important roles as a source of inflammation, the association of coronary PVAT inflammation and coronary hyperconstricting responses remains to be examined. We addressed this important issue in a porcine model of coronary hyperconstricting responses after drug-eluting stent implantation with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomographic imaging.Approach and Results—
An everolimus-eluting stent (EES) was randomly implanted in pigs into the left anterior descending or the left circumflex coronary artery while nonstented coronary artery was used as a control. After 1 month, coronary vasoconstricting responses to intracoronary serotonin (10 and 100 μg/kg) were examined by coronary angiography in vivo, followed by in vivo and ex vivo 18F-FDG positron emission tomographic/computed tomographic imaging. Coronary vasoconstricting responses to serotonin were significantly enhanced at the EES edges compared with the control site (P<0.01; n=40). Notably, in vivo and ex vivo 18F-FDG positron emission tomographic/computed tomographic imaging and autoradiography showed enhanced 18F-FDG uptake and its accumulation in PVAT at the EES edges compared with the control site, respectively (both P<0.05). Furthermore, histological and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that inflammatory changes of coronary PVAT were significantly enhanced at the EES edges compared with the control site (all P<0.01). Importantly, Rho-kinase expressions (ROCK1/ROCK2) and Rho-kinase activity (phosphorylated myosin phosphatase target subunit-1) at the EES edges were significantly enhanced compared with the control site.Conclusions—
These results indicate for the first time that inflammatory changes of coronary PVAT are associated with drug-eluting stent–induced coronary hyperconstricting responses in pigs in vivo and that 18F-FDG positron emission tomographic imaging is useful for assessment of coronary PVAT inflammation.