Chronic discrimination and bodily pain in a multiethnic cohort of midlife women in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation
A growing literature links discrimination to key markers of biobehavioral health. While racial or ethnic differences in pain are seen in experimental and clinical studies, the authors were interested in how chronic discrimination contributes to pain within multiple racial or ethnic groups over time. Participants were 3056 African American, Caucasian, Chinese, Hispanic, and Japanese women from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. The Everyday Discrimination Scale was assessed from baseline through 13 follow-up examinations. The bodily pain subscale of the MOS 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) was assessed annually. There were large racial or ethnic differences in reports of discrimination and pain. Discrimination attributions also varied by race or ethnicity. In linear mixed model analyses, initially adjusted for age, education, and pain medications, chronic everyday discrimination was associated with more bodily pain in all ethnic groups (beta = −5.84; P < 0.002 for Japanese; beta = −6.17; P < 0.001 for African American; beta = −8.74; P < 0.001 for Chinese; beta = −10.54; P < 0.001 for Caucasians; beta = −12.82; P < 0.001 for Hispanic). Associations remained significant in all ethnic groups after adjusting for additional covariates in subsequent models until adding depressive symptoms as covariate; in the final fully-adjusted models, discrimination remained a significant predictor of pain for African American (beta = −4.50; P < 0.001), Chinese (beta = −6.62; P < 0.001), and Caucasian (beta = −7.86; P < 0.001) women. In this longitudinal study, experiences of everyday discrimination were strongly linked to reports of bodily pain for the majority of women. Further research is needed to determine if addressing psychosocial stressors, such as discrimination, with patients can enhance clinical management of pain symptoms.