Effect of apple polyphenols on vascular oxidative stress and endothelium function: a translational study

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Abstract

Scope

We aimed examining apple polyphenols’ effect on uricemia and endothelial function in a sample of overweight subjects.

Methods and results

This was a two-phased study. In vitro experiment aimed to evaluate apple polyphenols’ ability to lower uric acid in comparison with allopurinol. In vivo study consisted in a randomized, double-blind, parallel placebo-controlled clinical trial involving 62 overweight volunteers with suboptimal values of fasting plasma glucose (100 mg/dL≤FPG≤125 mg/dL), randomized to 300 mg apple polyphenols or placebo for 8 weeks.

Methods and results

Apple polyphenols extract inhibited xanthine oxidase activity, with an IC50 = 130 ± 30 ng/mL; reducing uric acid production with an IC50 = 154 ± 28 ng/mL. During the trial, after the first 4 weeks of treatment, FPG decreased in the active treated group (−6.1%, p < 0.05), while no significant changes were observed regarding the other hematochemistry parameters. After 4 more weeks of treatment, active-treated patients had an improvement in FPG compared to baseline (−10.3%, p < 0,001) and the placebo group (p < 0,001). Uric acid (−14.0%, p < 0.05 versus baseline; p < 0.05 versus placebo) and endothelial reactivity (0.24±0.09, p = 0.009 versus baseline; p < 0.05 versus placebo) significantly improved too.

Conclusion

In vivo, apple polyphenols extract has a positive effect on vascular oxidative stress and endothelium function and reduce FPG and uric acid by inhibiting xanthine oxidase, as our In vitro experiment attests.

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