Non-invasive strategies for targeting the posterior segment of eye
The safe and effective treatment of eye diseases has been remained a global myth. Several advancements have been done and various drug delivery and treatment techniques have been suggested. The Posterior segment disorders are the leading cause of visual impairments and blindness. Targeting the therapeutic agents to the anterior and posterior segments of the eye has attracted extensive attention from the scientific community. Significant key factors in the success of ocular therapy are the development of safe, effective, economic and non-invasive novel drug delivery systems. These specialized non-invasive ocular drug delivery systems revolutionized the drug delivery strategies by overcoming the limitations, provided targeted delivery to the ocular tissues by avoiding larger doses, and reducing the toxicity encountered by the conventional approaches. These non-invasive systems are fabricated by ingredients encompassing biodegradability, biocompatibility, mucoadhesion, solubility and permeability enhancement and stimuli responsiveness. The variety of routes are utilized to provide minimally invasive drug delivery to the patients without any discomfort and pain. This review is focused on the brief introduction, types, significance, preparation techniques, components and mechanism of drug release of non-invasive systems, including in situ gelling systems, microspheres, iontophoresis, nanoparticles, nanosuspensions and specialized novel emulsions.