Impact of angiosome- and nonangiosome-targeted peroneal bypass on limb salvage and healing in patients with chronic limb-threatening ischemia
Direct (DIR) or indirect (IND) revascularization of pedal angiosomes in patients with chronic limb-threatening ischemia (CLTI) has an unclear impact on limb salvage and healing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of DIR and IND revascularization in patients with a peroneal bypass and tissue loss.Methods
We conducted a retrospective study of a prospectively maintained database in two European university centers from 2004 to 2015. We extracted from this database all patients with CLTI and tissue loss who had received a bypass to the peroneal artery. All patients underwent angiography before bypass. Revascularization was considered DIR if the wound was in a peroneal angiosome. Wounds, ischemia, and infection were categorized according to the Wound, Ischemia, and foot Infection (WIfI) classification. Limb salvage and amputation-free survival were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox regression was used to compare the role of patient characteristics, including diabetes, peroneal runoff, pedal arch angiosome, WIfI grade, chronic kidney disease, and diabetes, in amputation-free-survival.Results
From January 2004 through October 2015, there were 120 peroneal bypasses performed in 120 patients with CLTI and foot tissue loss. Only 55 wounds (46%) could be ascribed to a peroneal angiosome. At 3 years, amputation-free survival in patients with DIR revascularization was 54.9% ± 7.3% compared with 56.5% ± 6.3% in patients with IND revascularization (P = .44), with no significant difference in wound healing. Amputation-free survival at 3 years in patients with two patent peroneal branches was 74.8% ± 6.9% compared with 45.0% ± 6.0% in patients with one patent peroneal branch (P = .003). Amputation-free survival at 3 years in patients with a patent pedal arch (Rutherford 0-1) was 73.0% ± 7.0% vs 45.7% ± 6.0% in patients with incomplete pedal arch (Rutherford 2-3; P = .0002). Amputation-free survival at 3 years in patients with grade 1 or grade 2 WIfI was 87.4% ± 8.3% compared with 48.4% ± 5.3% in patients with grade 3 or grade 4 WIfI (P = .001). Amputation-free survival at 3 years in patients with diabetes was 43.7% ± 6.2% compared with 73.1% ± 6.7% in patients without diabetes (P = .002). Wound healing at 6 months was not significantly improved by its location within or outside a peroneal angiosome. Cox regression analysis demonstrated that diabetes, patency of both peroneal branches, patency of pedal arch, and WIfI stage but not DIR angiosome revascularization were significant predictors of amputation-free survival.Conclusions
Our results suggest that in patients with CLTI and tissue loss receiving a peroneal bypass, patency of both peroneal branches and pedal arch was associated with a better healing rate and a better amputation-free survival rate irrespective of wound angiosome location.