Novel nanosystems for the treatment of ocular inflammation: Current paradigms and future research directions
Ocular discomforts involve anterior/posterior-segment diseases, symptomatic distress and associated inflammations and severe retinal disorders. Conventionally, the formulations such as eye drops, eye solutions, eye ointments and lotions, etc. were used as modalities to attain relief from such ocular discomforts. However, eye allows limited access to these traditional formulations due to its unique anatomical structure and dynamic ocular environment and therefore calls for improvement in disease intervention. To address these challenges, development of nanotechnology based nanomedicines and novel nanosystems (liposomes, cubosomes, polymeric and lipidic nanoparticles, nanoemulsions, spanlastics and nano micelles) are currently in progress (some of them are already marketed such as Eye-logic liposomal eye spray@Naturalife, Ireland). Today, it is one of the central concept in designing more accessible formulations for deeper segments of the eyes. These nanosystems has largely enabled the availability of medicaments at required site in a required concentration without inversely affecting the eye tissues; and therefore, attaining the excessive considerations from the formulation scientists and pharmacologists worldwide. The entrapment of drugs, genes, and proteins inside these novel systems is the basis that works at the bio-molecular level bestows greater potential to eradicate disease causatives. In this review, we highlighted the recent attempts of nanotechnology-based systems for treating and managing various ocular ailments. The progress described herein may pave the way to new, highly effective and vital ocular nanosystems.