Neurogenesis impairment: An early developmental defect in Down syndrome
Down syndrome (DS) is characterized by brain hypotrophy and intellectual disability starting from early life stages. Accumulating evidence shows that the phenotypic features of the DS brain can be traced back to the fetal period since the DS brain exhibits proliferation potency reduction starting from the critical time window of fetal neurogenesis. This defect is worsened by the fact that neural progenitor cells exhibit reduced acquisition of a neuronal phenotype and an increase in the acquisition of an astrocytic phenotype. Consequently, the DS brain has fewer neurons in comparison with the typical brain. Although apoptotic cell death may be increased in DS, this does not seem to be the major cause of brain hypocellularity. Evidence obtained in brains of individuals with DS, DS-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and DS mouse models has provided some insight into the mechanisms underlying the developmental defects due to the trisomic condition. Although many triplicated genes may be involved, in the light of the studies reviewed here, DYRK1A, APP, RCAN1 and OLIG1/2 appear to be particularly important determinants of many neurodevelopmental alterations that characterize DS because their triplication affects both the proliferation and fate of neural precursor cells as well as apoptotic cell death. Based on the evidence reviewed here, pathways downstream to these genes may represent strategic targets, for the design of possible interventions.