Silicon containing ibuprofen derivatives with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities: An in vivo andin silicostudy

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Abstract

There are many chronic diseases related with inflammation. The chronic inflammation can produce other problems as cancer. Therefore, it is necessary to design drugs with better anti-inflammatory activity than those in the clinic. Likewise, these could be used in chronic treatments with minimum adverse effects. The amide or ester functionality in combination with the insertion of a silyl alkyl moiety is able to improve some drug properties. In this context, the evaluation of a group of silicon containing ibuprofen derivatives (SCIDs) as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents is reported. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by the 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH-), 2,2′-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic) acid (ABTS•+) and the Fe(II) chelating ability methods. The anti-inflammatory activity was determined by using the carrageenan induced rat paw edema. The gastrotoxic profile of the SCIDs that displayed significant anti-inflammatory activity was determined by the indomethacin induced ulceration method. The SCIDs performed better than ibuprofen as chelating agents for Fe(II) and as scavengers for the free radicals DPPH• and ABTS•+. On the anti-inflammatory test, compound 4a inhibited the edema up to 87%, while 4d & 10b achieved significant inflammation inhibition at a lower effective dose 50 (ED50) than ibuprofen's. None of the SCIDs endowed with anti-inflammatory activity, showed significant gastrotoxic effects with respect to those displayed by ibuprofen. Based on the experimental results and aided by the theoretical docking approach, it was possible to rationalize how the SCIDs may bind to cyclooxygenase isoforms and helped to explain their reduced gastrotoxicity. The evaluated effects were improved in SCIDs with respect to ibuprofen.

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